Description of practice

Area closure is the practice of enclosing and protecting an area of degraded land from human use and animal interference to permit natural rehabilitation. It can be enhanced by additional vegetative and structural conservation measures.

Examples of how to use area closure Further information
(see Note below)

AMP87 01

Rangeland resting

Rangeland is protected by excluding grazing for 2-3 years (depending on ecosystem resilience and climatic conditions) to allow the plant cover to recover.


»WOCAT technology 1399

AMP87 02

Area closure with enrichment planting

Degraded land is protected from human and animal interference for 3-5 years. This area closure is complemented with maintenance of terraces, enrichment and overseeding of grasses to enhance growth of natural vegetation and biodiversity.


»WOCAT technology 1414

AMP87 03

Area closure for fodder and alternative income

An area of degraded land is enclosed and protected from human and animal interference for natural rehabilitation, enhanced by additional vegetative and structural conservation measures. Enclosed areas provide fodder and timber after 7-8 years.


»WOCAT technology 1048
»WOCAT technology 1598
»WOCAT technology 4135
»WOCAT technology 4134

AMP87 04

Dry-season fodder reserves (Ngitili)

Ngitili are traditional enclosures used for in-situ conservation and rehabilitation of vegetation. For initial regeneration of denuded land exclusion for up to 5 years is needed. Thereafter seasonal exclusion from the onset of the rainy season till the peak of dry season is practiced.



AMP87 05

Sand dune stabilisation

Three measures are combined to stabilize sand dunes over a number of years: enclosure; millet stalk palisade construction; and regeneration and planting of native vegetation.


»WOCAT technology 1101

AMP87 06

Area closure and reforestation

Degraded arid lands are reforested with Acacia (A. tortilis, a native drought-tolerant species) by planting the trees in pits and protecting the area with fencing. The aim is to restore and rehabilitate the forest-steppe ecosystem.


»WOCAT technology 1568

AMP87 07

Summer resting

During summer, when rangelands suffer from seasonal water stress, Mediterranean pastoralists move their flocks to deciduous forest where the animals can still find green grass. This action prevents excessive pressure on the rangelands.


»WOCAT technology 1463

Note: Most of the Further information links are to a full description of the example in the WOCAT database. However sometimes the link may be to similar practices or a research paper. Occasionally the link is to a commercial product in which case it should be understood that this does not imply any endorsement of the product by iSQAPER.

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